From the Womb to the Body Politic: Raising the Nation in Enlightenment Russia

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Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Explore Now. Buy As Gift. Overview In Russia during the second half of the eighteenth century, a public conversation emerged that altered perceptions of pregnancy, birth, and early childhood. Children began to be viewed as a national resource, and childbirth heralded new members of the body politic.

The exclusively female world of mothers, midwives, and nannies came under the scrutiny of male physicians, state institutions, a host of zealous reformers, and even Empress Catherine the Great. Reformers aimed to teach women to care for the bodies of pregnant mothers, infants, and children according to medical standards of the Enlightenment. Kuxhausen reveals both their optimism and their sometimes fatal blind spots in matters of implementation. In examining the implication of women in public, even political, roles as agents of state-building and the civilizing process, From the Womb to the Body Politic offers a nuanced, expanded view of the Enlightenment in Russia and the ways in which Russians imagined their nation while constructing notions of childhood.

About the Author Anna Kuxhausen is associate professor of history at St. Olaf College. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Publikationen Forschungsprojekte.

Russian Review, vol. The Slavonic and East European Review, vol. By Daria Sambuk. Slavic Review, vol.

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The primary objective of rule-based fiscal legislation at the subnational level in India is to achieve debt sustainability by placing a ceiling on borrowing and the use of borrowed resources for public capital investment by phasing out deficits in the budget revenue account. This paper examines whether the application of fiscal rules has contributed to an increase in fiscal space for public capital investment spending in major Indian states. Our analysis shows that, controlling for other factors, there is a negative relationship between fiscal rules and public capital investment spending at the state level under the rule-based fiscal regime.


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New methodology for producing employment microsimulations is introduced, with a focus on farms and household nonfarm enterprises. Previous simulations have not dealt with the issue of reduced production in farm and nonfarm household enterprises when household members are placed in paid employment.

In this paper, we present a method for addressing the tradeoff between paid employment and the farm and nonfarm business activities individuals may already be engaged in. The implementation of the simulations for Ghana and Tanzania is described and the quality of the simulation results is assessed. Although one would expect the unemployed to be the population most likely affected by immigration, most of the studies have concentrated on investigating the effects immigration has on the employed population. Little is known of the effects of immigration on labor market transitions out of unemployment.

Using the basic monthly Current Population Survey from —13 we match data for individuals who were interviewed in two consecutive months and identify workers who transition out of unemployment. We employ a multinomial model to examine the effects of immigration on the transition out of unemployment, using state-level immigration statistics. The results suggest that immigration does not affect the probabilities of native-born workers finding a job.

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Instead, we find that immigration is associated with smaller probabilities of remaining unemployed, but it is also associated with higher probabilities of workers leaving the labor force. This effect impacts mostly young and less educated people. This paper explores from a historical perspective the process of financialization over the course of the 20th century. We identify four phases of financialization: the first, from the s to early financialization ; the second, from to transitory phase ; the third, between and definancialization ; and the fourth period begins in the early s and leads to the Great Recession complex financialization.

Our findings indicate that the main features of the current phase of financialization were already in place in the first period. We closely examine institutions within these distinct financial regimes and focus on the relative size of the financial sector, the respective regulation regime of each period, and the intensity of the shareholder value orientation, as well as the level of financial innovations implemented. Although financialization is a recent term, the process is far from novel.

We conclude that its effects can be studied better with reference to economic history.


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This paper examines the issue of the Greek public debt from different perspectives. We show that the austerity imposed since has been unsuccessful in stabilizing the debt while at the same time taking a heavy toll on the Greek economy and society. An insistence on the current policies is not justifiable either on pragmatic or on moral or any other grounds. The experience of Germany in the early post—World War II period provides some useful hints for the way forward. A solution to the Greek public debt problem is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the solution of the Greek and wider European crisis.

A broader agenda that deals with the malaises of the Greek economy and the structural imbalances of the eurozone is of vital importance. After reviewing the main determinants of the current eurozone crisis, this paper discusses the feasibility of introducing fiscal currencies as a way to restore fiscal space in peripheral countries, like Greece, that have so far adopted austerity measures in order to abide by their commitments to eurozone institutions and the International Monetary Fund. We show that the introduction of fiscal currencies would speed up the recovery, without violating the rules of eurozone treaties.


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  • We find high numbers of hidden poor—those who are not poor according to the official measure but are found to be poor when using our time-adjusted poverty line. Large time deficits for those living just above the official poverty line are the reason for this hidden poverty. Time deficits are unevenly distributed by employment status, family type, and especially gender. Simulations of the impact of full-time employment on those households with nonworking for pay adults indicate that reductions in income poverty can be achieved, but at the cost of increased time poverty.

    Policy interventions that address the lack of both income and time are discussed. Viable options for price stability are described, analyzed, and tabulated with regard to both short- and long-term stability and volatility. We introduce an additional tool for promoting price stability and conclude that public purpose is best served by the selection of an alternative buffer stock policy that is directly managed by the ECB.

    US government indebtedness and fiscal deficits increased notably following the global financial crisis. Yet long-term interest rates and US Treasury yields have remained remarkably low.

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    Why have long-term interest rates stayed low despite the elevated government indebtedness? What are the drivers of long-term interest rates in the United States? The empirical findings reveal that short-term interest rates, after controlling for other crucial variables such as the rate of inflation, the rate of economic activity, fiscal deficits, government debts, and so forth, are the most important determinants of long-term interest rates in the United States. Public finance variables, such as government fiscal balances or government indebtedness, as a share of nominal GDP appear not to have any discernable effect on long-term interest rates.

    Japan has experienced stagnation, deflation, and low interest rates for decades. It is caught in a liquidity trap. It is argued that insights from a Keynesian perspective are still quite relevant. Paul Krugman a, b and Ben Bernanke ; identify low inflation and deflation risks as the cause of a liquidity trap. Hence, they advocate a credible commitment by the central bank to sustained monetary easing as the key to reigniting inflation, creating an exit from a liquidity trap through low interest rates and quantitative easing. His analysis calls for an integrated strategy for overcoming a liquidity trap.

    Money, in this paper, is defined as a power relationship of a specific kind, a stratified social debt relationship, measured in a unit of account determined by some authority. A brief historical examination reveals its evolving nature in the process of social provisioning.

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    Money not only predates markets and real exchange as understood in mainstream economics but also emerges as a social mechanism of distribution, usually by some authority of power be it an ancient religious authority, a king, a colonial power, a modern nation state, or a monetary union. In modern capitalist economies, the currency is also a simple public monopoly. As long as money has existed, someone has tried to tamper with its value.

    This working paper is also available in Spanish. The Brazilian economy in was afflicted by a lethal combination of decelerating activity and accelerating inflation. Expectations for are equally or even more adverse, since the effects of rising unemployment emerge only after a lag. The domestic debate has pitted analysts who believe the crisis is due exclusively to past policy mistakes against those who believe that all was well until the government decided to implement austerity policies in A closer examination of the evidence shows that, in fact, both causes contributed to the crisis.

    But it also suggests that its depth has a more proximate cause in the political collapse of the federal government in , which led Brazilian society to an impasse for which one cannot yet visualize the solution. Against the backdrop of the UN Agenda for Sustainable Development, this paper analyzes the measurement issues in gender-based indices constructed by the United Nations Development Programme UNDP and suggests alternatives for choice of variables, functional form, and weights.

    While the UNDP Gender Inequality Index GII conceptually reflects the loss in achievement due to inequality between men and women in three dimensions—health, empowerment, and labor force participation—we argue that the assumptions and the choice of variables to capture these dimensions remain inadequate and erroneous, resulting in only the partial capture of gender inequalities. The technical obscurity remains how to interpret GII by combining women-specific indicators with indicators that are disaggregated for both men and women.

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    The GII is a partial construct, as it does not capture many significant dimensions of gender inequality. Though this requires a data revolution, we tried to reconstruct the GII in the context of Asia-Pacific using three scenarios: 1 improving the set of variables incorporating unpaid care work, pay gaps, intrahousehold decision making, exposure to knowledge networks, and feminization of governance at local levels; 2 constructing a decomposed index to specify the direction of gender gaps; and 3 compiling an alternative index using Principal Components Index for assigning weights.

    The choice of countries under the three scenarios is constrained by data paucity. The results reveal that the UNDP GII overestimates the gap between the two genders, and that using women-specific indicators leads to a fallacious estimation of gender inequality. The estimates are illustrative. The implication of the results broadly suggests a return to the UNDP Gender Development Index for capturing gender development, with an improvised set of choices and variables.

    The collapse of the Soviet Union initiated an unprecedented social and economic transformation of the successor countries and altered the gender balance in a region that counted gender equality as one of the key legacies of its socialist past.

    Study Group on Eighteenth-Century Russia - Recent Works by Members Index

    In this paper, we establish the current state of various dimensions of gender inequalities and their past dynamics in the countries of Central Asia Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan , South Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia , and Western CIS Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine , and propose steps aimed at reducing those inequalities in the context of inclusive growth, decent job creation, and economic empowerment. This paper describes the transformations in federal classification of ethno-racial information since the civil rights era of the s.

    These changes were introduced in the censuses of and , and we anticipate another major change in the Census. The most important changes in introduced the Hispanic Origin and Ancestry questions and the elimination of two questions on parental birthplace. The latter decision has made it impossible to adequately track the progress of the new second generation. The change in allowed respondents to declare origins in more than one race; the anticipated change for will create a single question covering race and Hispanic Origin—or, stated more broadly, race and ethnic origin.

    Creating the unified question in the manner the Census Bureau is testing will accomplish by far the hardest part of what we believe should be done. However, we suggest two additional changes of a much simpler nature: restoring the parental birthplace questions to the annual American Community Survey and possibly eliminating the Ancestry question the information it gathered will apparently now be obtained in the single race-and-ethnicity question. The paper is historical in focus. It surveys how the classification system prior to dealt with the tension between ethno-racial continuity and assimilation differently for each major type of group ; how the political pressures producing the changes of and changed the treatment of that tension; and, finally, the building pressure for a further change.

    We use a parametric Lorenz curve model and Gini-like indices of inequality as our measures to assess distributional changes.